Bladder stones

Bladder stones consist of uric acid or struvite. It predominantly occurs men with chronic bladder outlet obstruction from Benign prostate enlargement. It may also form in patients with long term catheters.

Bladder stones may be asymptomatic or present with lower urinary tract symptoms, haemturia or recurrent urinary tract infections. Stones are easily visible on ultrasound or a KUB x ray. Most stones can be fragmented and cleared endoscopically with a pneumatic lithoclast or holmium laser. Large stones > 5cm are removed by open surgery (open cystolitholapaxy).